The Central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked nation that is encircled by Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Conquered by Russia in the 1870s and a former constituency of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan attained independence in 1991.
Most of Kyrgyzstan is mountainous country, but the majority of the population, estimated at roughly 6.5 million in 2020, lives in the lowlands. The capital city, Bishkek, used to be known as Pishpek and Frunze, had a population of just over 1 million in 2020. Kyrgyz and Russian are the nation's official languages. A developing country, Kyrgyzstan has an economy that relies heavily on natural gas and oil.